Category: Holidays » Islamic holidays
03 Jumada al-Thani, death of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah in 11 AH.
Fāṭimah bint Muḥammad (born 604 – died 632) is the youngest daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadijah, wife of Ali and mother of Hasan and Hussein, and one of the members of Ahl al-Bayt. She is the object of the veneration, love, and respect of all Muslims, as she was the child closest to her father and supported him in his difficulties, was the supporter and loving caretaker of her own husband and children, and was the only child of Muhammad to have male children live beyond childhood, whose descendants are spread throughout the Islamic world and are known as Sayyids. The 11th century dynasty ruling Egypt at the time of the Crusades, the Fatimids, claimed descent from Fatimah.
For Muslims, Fatimah is an inspiring example and Fatimah is one of the most popular girl's names throughout the Muslim world. Fatimah is a vital character in the religion of Islam and is considered a role model for all Muslim women. Although there is controversy between different sects of Islam regarding her political role, she is the daughter of Muhammad and is loved and venerated by all Muslims.
Fatimah was born in Mecca to Khadija, the first of Muhammad's wives. There are differences of opinion on the exact date of her birth, but the widely accepted view is that she was born five years before the first Quranic revelations, during the time of the rebuilding of the Kaaba in 605, although this does imply she was over 18 at the time of her marriage, which was unusual in Arabia. Twelver Shia sources, however, state that she was born either two or five years after the first Qur'anic revelations, but that timeline would imply her mother was over fifty at the time of her birth.
Fatimah is given many titles by Muslims to show their admiration of her moral and physical characteristics. The most used title is "al-Zahra", meaning "the shining one", and she is commonly referred to as Fatimah Zahra. She was also known as "al-Batul" (the chaste and pure one) as she spent much of her time in prayer, reciting the Qur'an and in other acts of worship. Besides, amongst 125 famous veneration titles, she has also been honored with the title of Umm-ul-Aaima (Mother of Imams)
Some verses in the Qur'an are associated to Fatimah and her household by classical exegetes, although she is not mentioned by name. According to J. D. McAuliffe, two of the most important verses include the verse of purification, which is the 33rd ayah in sura al-Ahzab and the 61st ayah in sura Al-i-Imran. In the first verse, the phrase "people of the house" (ahl al-bayt) is ordinarily understood to consist of Muhammad, Fatimah, her husband Ali and their two sons (al-Tabari in his exegesis also mentions a tradition that interprets "people of the house" as Muhammad's wives; for Ibn al-Jawzi, the order of these options is reversed). The second verse refers to an episode in which Muhammad proposed an ordeal of mutual adjuration (Mubahala) to a delegation of Christians. Fatimah, according to the "occasion for the revelation" of this verse, was among those offered by Muhammad as witnesses and guarantors.
Muslim exegesis of the Qur'anic verse 3:42, links the praise of Mary, the mother of Jesus, with that of Fatimah based on a quote attributed to Muhammad that lists the outstanding women of all time as Mary, Asiya (the wife of Pharaoh), Khadija and Fatimah (the all Muslim commentaries insists upon the absolute superiority of Fatimah). For the few months that she survived following the death of her father, Fatimah found herself at the center of political disunity. Differing accounts of the events surrounding the commencement of the caliphate exist which were the cause of the Shia and Sunni split.
Shia historians hold that Umar called for Ali and his men to come out and swear allegiance to Abu Bakr. When they did not, Umar broke in, resulting in Fatimah's ribs being broken by being pressed between the door and the wall causing her to miscarry Muhsin which led to her eventual death. Another Shia version of the events says that Umar sent a force led by his slave-boy Qunfud to Fatimah's house instructing them to bring Ali to the mosque. Arriving at the house, Qunfud requested permission to enter, which was refused by Ali causing Qunfud to return to Abu Bakr and Umar and relate the events, who instructed them to go back and enter the house by force if necessary. Qunfud and his men returned but were this time refused permission by Fatimah which caused Qunfud to send his men back to Abu Bakr and Umar for further instructions who told them to burn the house down if necessary in order to bring Ali to them.
Shi'as hold the beliefs that she was involved in three significant political actions. First, after the conquest of Mecca, she refused her protection to Abu Sufian; Second, after Muhammad's death, she defended Ali’s cause, fiercely opposed the election of Abu Bakr, and had violent disputes with him and particularly with Umar; Third, she laid claim to the property rights of her father and challenged Abu Bakr’s categorical refusal to cede them, particularly Fadak and a share in the produce of Khaybar.
Following the Farewell Pilgrimage, Muhammad summoned Fatimah and informed her that he would die soon, and also told her that she would be the next of his household to die. After Mohammad's subsequent passing, Fatimah was grief-stricken and remained so until she herself died less than six months later, on 10th, Jumada al-awwal (as per Fatimid).
She passed the time sobbing and sighing and nothing could take away her grief. As soon as she had done her household chores and taken care of her husband, 'Ali, and their sons, Hasan and Husain, she would continue weeping: "O my beloved father! To whom have you left your Fatima?" Six months went by in this fashion till Fatima got so thin that there was nothing left of her but skin and bones.
Shia believe that Fatima died as a result of 'injuries' sustained after her house was raided by Umar ibn al-Khattab who shi'a accuse of 'threatening to set fire to the house'. The door was supposedly rammed open by one of the assailants knocking Fatimah to the ground. This attack is said to have cracked her rib-cage whilst she was pregnant, causing her to miscarry. According to Shia tradition, Muhammed appeared in a dream and informed Fatimah that she would be passing away the next day. Fatimah informed her husband Ali of her impending death, and asked him not to allow the oppressors to be involved in her ceremonial prayers janazah (prayer performed in congregation after the death of a Muslim) or take part in the burial. Sunni Muslims, who regard Abu Bakr and Umar as revered figures, and the Zaidiyyah Shia reject this version of events.
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